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MessagePosté le: Sam 21 Mai - 15:50 (2016)    Sujet du message: Systematic Reviews To Support Evidence-based Medicine, 2nd Répondre en citant




Systematic Reviews To Support Evidence-based Medicine, 2nd Edition Khan, Khalid S | Kunz, Regina | Kleijnen, Jos | Antes, Gerd|| > bit.ly/25eSo0B





.The....generally....low....quality....of....available....studies....means....that....the....results....must....be....interpreted....with....cautionFor...many...years,...your...colleagues...and...you...have...believed...that...it...improves...dental...healthWith..this..background,..systematic..reviews..on..safety..have..to..include..evidence..from..studies..with..a..range..of..designsOf..these,..11..analyses..found..a..negative..association..(fewer..cancers..due..to..exposure),..9..found..a..positive..one..and..2..found..no..associationYouTubePMCID:....PMC539417Five....steps....to....conducting....a....systematic....reviewKhalid....S....Khan,....MB....MSc,....Regina....Kunz,....MD....MSc,1....Jos....Kleijnen,....MD....PhD,2....and....Gerd....Antes,....PhD3Education....Resource....Centre,....Birmingham....Women's....Hospital,....Birmingham....B15....2TG,....UK1....German....Cochrane....Centre,....Freiburg....and....Department....of....Nephrology,....Charit,....Berlin,....Germany2....Centre....for....Reviews....and....Dissemination,....York,....UK3....German....Cochrane....Centre,....Freiburg,....Germany....Correspondence....to:....Khalid....S....Khan....E-mail:....moc.shneht.snemow-mahbnahk.dilahkAuthor....information........Copyright....and....License....information....Copyright........2003,....The....Royal....Society....of....MedicineThis....article....has....been....cited....by....other....articles....in....PMCConsequently,...studies...may...range...from...satisfactorily...meeting...quality...criteria,...to...having...some...deficiencies,...to...not...meeting...the...criteria...at...all,...and...they...can...be...assigned...to...one...of...three...prespecified...quality...categories...as...shown...in...Table...1Your....browser....doesn't....accept....cookiesPublic....health....decisions....have....been....based....on....professional....judgment....and....practical....feasibility....without....explicit....consideration....of....the....scientific....evidenceOur....book1....describes....them....in....detailPrimary...researchers...can...statistically...adjust...for...these...differences,...when...estimating...the...effect...of...exposure...on...outcomes,...by...use...of...multivariable...modelling.Put...simply,...use...of...a...prospective...design,...robust...ascertainment...of...exposure...and...outcomes,...and...control...for...confounding...are...the...generic...issues...one...would...look...for...in...quality...assessment...of...studies...on...safetyJohnsonRobert...EThe...outcomes...of...those...developing...cancer...(and...remaining...free...of...cancer)...are...likely...to...be...more...accurately...ascertained...if...the...follow-up...was...long...and...if...the...assessment...was...blind...to...exposure...status.When...examining...how...the...effect...of...exposure...on...outcome...was...established,...reviewers...assessed...whether...the...comparison...groups...were...similar...in...all...respects...other...than...their...exposure...to...fluoridated...waterMOthers,...worried...about...the...disfigurement...of...mottled...teeth,...may...prefer...other...means...of...fluoride...administration...or...even...occasional...treatment...for...dental...cariesCONCLUSIONWith....increasing....focus....on....generating....guidance....and....recommendations....for....practice....through....systematic....reviews,....healthcare....professionals....need....to....understand....the....principles....of....preparing....such....reviewsIn...observational...studies...their...distribution...may...be...unequalThere..are..considerable..difficulties..in..designing..and..conducting..safety..studies..to..capture..these..outcomes,..since..a..large..number..of..people..need..to..be..observed..over..a..long..periodSTEP..5:..INTERPRETING..THE..FINDINGSIn..the..fluoridation..example,..the..focus..was..on..the..safety..of..a..community-based..public..health..interventionCalendarCookies...are...required...to...use...this...siteSystematic...Reviews...to...Support...Evidence-Based...MedicineIn....doing....so,....these....discussions....also....address....how....present....practices....in....systematic....reviewing....might....improveOf..these,..10..examined..all-cause..cancer..incidence..or..mortality,..in..22..analysesThe..full..papers..of..the..remaining..735..citations..were..assessed..to..select..those..primary..studies..in..man..that..directly..related..to..fluoride..in..drinking..water..supplies,..comparing..at..least..two..groupsT.,..Low,..RJ..R..Soc..MedLaCroixVersion...of...Record...online:...7...JAN...2013DOI:10.1002/jrsm.1071Copyright......2013...John...Wiley...&...Sons,...LtdThe....original....review3....provides....details....of....how....the....differences....between....study....results....were....investigated....and....how....they....were....summarized....(with....or....without....meta-analysis)Khan,....Kunz,....Kleijnen,....and....Antes's....Systematic....Reviews....to....Support....Evidence-Based....Medicine....(2nd....edition,....2011,....CRC....Press,....ISBN-13:....9781853157943)....provides....a....fine,....brief....introduction....to....the....subject,....in....particular....for....those....in....medicine....and....public....health....fieldsOf..course,..examination..of..safety..only..makes..sense..in..a..context..where..the..intervention..has..some..beneficial..effect 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